23 December 1942

Australians continue to mop up the eastern half of the Japanese defences at Buna as the cornered defenders fight to the last. Japanese officers make futile suicidal sword charges and snipers in treetops shoot until they are killed. General Ned Herring orders: “Stop any more Xmas hampers till we have cleared the position.”

 The Americans make little headway at great cost on the western side.